Actualidad laboral sobre la crisis del Coronavirus AQUÍ

Legislación | Actividad Jurisdiccional | Noticias
Banner Cursos CEF

Recursos humanos. Gig economy: ¿el inicio de una nueva era en la gestión de los recursos humanos?

Este trabajo ha obtenido el Premio Estudios Financieros 2021 en la modalidad de Recursos Humanos.

Desde la crisis financiera global de 2008 se está asistiendo a la consolidación de un nuevo modo de organización de la actividad económica a nivel mundial: la gig economy. A grandes rasgos, tres son los ejes principales sobre los que se articula: flexibilidad, trabajos esporádicos o por encargo y tecnología. Su auge está suponiendo una auténtica revolución en el ámbito de las relaciones laborales al suprimir un elemento clave en la gestión de los recursos humanos (RR. HH.): la relación laboral entre empresa empleadora-persona trabajadora dentro de los límites de la propia empresa; una situación que está planteando importantes desafíos legales en todos los países del mundo. En el presente trabajo se repasa el contexto en el que se origina, sus principales rasgos distintivos, al tiempo que se recopilan algunos datos estadísticos que dan una imagen de su magnitud actual en el mundo. Asimismo, se analizan las posibles ventajas e inconvenientes que representa para aquellas personas que deciden participar en ella. Y, lo que es más importante, se plantea una propuesta original de clasificación de la gig economy. En este sentido se distinguen dos formas extremas que se consideran dominantes a partir de la evidencia disponible: fuerte y débil. Se muestran cuáles son sus características diferenciadoras que, por otro lado, deben ser tenidas en cuenta para disponer de una imagen más informada acerca de sus posibles implicaciones sobre la gestión de los RR. HH.

Palabras clave: gig economy; gig workers; plataformas digitales; forma fuerte; forma débil.

José Ignacio Galán Zazo
Catedrático de Organización de Empresas.
Departamento de Administración y Economía de la Empresa
de la Universidad de Salamanca

José Ángel Zúñiga Vicente
Catedrático de Organización de Empresas.
Departamento de Economía de la Empresa (ADO), Economía Aplicada II y Fundamentos
del Análisis Económico de la Universidad Rey Juan Carlos de Madrid

Puede adquirir este documento en la página web ceflegal.com
RTSS. CEF. NÚM. 463 (octubre 2021)

Comprar Documento en ceflegal.com

Referencias bibliográficas

Aloisi, Antonio. (2016). Commoditized workers: Case study research on labor law issues arising from a set of “on-demand/gig economy” platforms. Comparative Labor Law and Policy Journal, 37(3), 620-653.
Anwar, Mohammad Amir & Graham, Mark. (2021). Between a rock and a hard place: Freedom, flexibility, precarity and vulnerability in the gig economy in Africa. Competition & Change, 25(2), 237-258.
Apouey, Bénédicte; Roulet, Alexandra; Solal, Isabelle & Stabile, Mark. (2020). Gig workers during the COVID-19 crisis in France: Financial precarity and mental well-being. Journal of Urban Health, 97(6), 776-795.
Aroles, Jeremy; Mitev, Nathalie & De Vaujany, François-Xavier. (2019). Mapping themes in the study of new work practices. New Technology, Work and Employment, 34(3), 285-299.
Bajwa, Uttam; Gastaldo, Denise; Di Ruggiero, Erica & Knorr, Lilian. (2018). The health of workers in the global gig economy. Globalization and Health, 14(1), 1-4.
Barney, Jay. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17(1), 99-120.
Barratt, Tom; Goods, Caleb & Veen, Alex. (2020). “I’m my own boss…”: Active intermediation and “entrepreneurial” worker agency in the Australian gig-economy. Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space, 52(8), 1.643-1.661.
Cao, Xinyu; Zhang, Dennis & Huang, Lei. (4 August 2020). The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on gig economy labor supply. NYU Stern School of Business. https://ssrn.com/abstract=3666725 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3666725.
Cary, Rachel. (18 June 2019). The so-called “gig economy” changing the Australian workforce. Special Broadcasting Service. https://www.sbs.com.au/news/the-so-called-gig-economy-changing-the-australian-workforce/bcdc8557-b50b-4d63-9284-ea72657fbdb4.
Choudary, Sangeet Paul. (2018). The architecture of digital labour platforms: Policy recommendations on platform design for worker well-being. ILO Future of Work Research Paper Series, 3. International Labour Organization.
Christie, Nicola & Ward, Heather. (2019). The health and safety risks for people who drive for work in the gig economy. Journal of Transport & Health, 13, 115-127.
Deloitte. (January 2014). Big demands and high expectations. The Deloitte millennial survey. Executive Summary. https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/global/Documents/About-Deloitte/gx-dttl-2014-millennial-survey-report.pdf.
Edison Research. (December 2018). The gig economy. Marketplace-Edison Research Poll. http://www.edisonresearch.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Gig-Economy-2018-Marketplace-Edison-Research-Poll-FINAL.pdf.
Evans, Peter C. & Gawer, Annabelle. (2016). The rise of the platform enterprise: A global survey. Center for Global Enterprise, University of Surrey.
Fabo, Brian; Beblavý, Miroslav; Kilhoffer, Zachary & Lenaerts, Karolien. (2017). An overview of European platforms: Scope and business models. Joint Research Center, Publications Office of the European Union.
Fabo, Brian; Karanovic, Jovana & Dukova, Katerina. (2017). In search of an adequate European policy response to the platform economy. Transfer. European Review of Labour and Research, 23(2), 163-175.
Fayard, Anne-Laure. (2021). Notes on the meaning of work: Labor, work, and action in the 21st century. Journal of Management Inquiry, 30(2), 207-220.
Federal Reserve Board. (2020). Report on the Economic Well-Being of US Households in 2019. Featuring Supplemental Data from April 2020. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. https://www.federalreserve.gov/publications/files/2019-report-economic-well-being-us-households-202005.pdf.
Ford, Michele & Honan, Vivian. (2019). The limits of mutual aid: Emerging forms of collectivity among app-based transport workers in Indonesia. Journal of Industrial Relations, 61(4), 528-548.
Friedman, Gerald Carl. (2014). Workers without employers: Shadow corporations and the rise of the gig economy. Review of Keynesian Economics, 2(2), 171-188.
Gandini, Alessandro. (2019). Labour process theory and the gig economy. Human Relations, 72(6), 1.039-1.056.
Goods, Caleb; Veen, Alex & Barratt, Tom. (2019). “Is your gig any good?” Analysing job quality in the Australian platform-based food-delivery sector. Journal of Industrial Relations, 61(4), 502-527.
Graham, Mark; Hjorth, Isis & Lehdonvirta, Vili. (2017). Digital labour and development: Impacts of global digital labour platforms and the gig economy on worker livelihoods. Transfer. European Review of Labour and Research, 23(2), 135-162.
Hauben, Harald; Lenaerts, Karolien & Waeyaert, Willem. (2020). The platform economy and precarious work. Publication for the Committee on Employment and Social Affairs, Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies. European Parliament.
Healy, Joshua; Nicholson, Daniel & Pekarek, Andreas. (2017). Should we take the gig economy seriously? Labour & Industry. A Journal of the Social and Economic Relations of Work, 27(3), 232-248.
Healy, Joshua; Pekarek, Andreas & Vromen, Ariadne. (2020). Sceptics or supporters? Consumers’ views of work in the gig economy. New Technology, Work and Employment, 35(1), 1-19.
Heiland, Heiner. (2021). Controlling space, controlling labour? Contested space in food delivery gig work. New Technology, Work and Employment, 36(1), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1111/ntwe.12183.
Huws, Ursula; Spencer, Neil H.; Syrdal, Dag S. & Holts, Kaire. (2017). Working in the gig economy: Research results from the UK, Sweden, Germany, Austria, The Netherlands, Switzerland and Italy. Foundation for European Progressive Studies, University of Hertfordshire, & UNI Europa Global Union.
Jabagi, Nura; Croteau, Anne-Marie; Audebrand, Luc K. & Marsan, Josianne. (2019). Gig-workers’ motivation: Thinking beyond carrots and sticks. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 34(4), 192-213. https://doi.org/10.1108/JMP-06-2018-0255.
Kessler, Sarah. (2018). Gigged: The gig economy, the end of the job and the future of work. Random House.
Kostyshyna, Olena & Luu, Corinne. (2019). The size and characteristics of informal (“gig”) work in Canada. Staff Analytical Note 2019-6. Bank of Canada. https://www.bankofcanada.ca/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/san2019-6.pdf.
Lee, Aileen. (2 November 2013). Welcome to the Unicorn Club: Learning from billion-dollar startups. TechCrunch. https://techcrunch.com/2013/11/02/welcome-to-the-unicorn-club/.
Lehdonvirta, Vili. (2018). Flexibility in the gig economy: Managing time on three online piecework platforms. New Technology, Work and Employment, 33(1), 13-29.
MBO Partners. (2018). The new normal. https://www.mbopartners.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/State_of_Independence_2018.pdf.
MBO Partners. (2020). A decade of independence: Ten trends that matter. https://info.mbopartners.com/rs/mbo/images/MBO_Partners_State_of_Independence_2020_Report.pdf.
Pesole, Annarosa; Urzi Brancati, Cesira; Fernández-Macías, Enrique; Biagi, Federico & González Vázquez, Ignacio. (2018). Platform workers in Europe: Evidence from the COLLEEM Survey. EUR-Scientific and Technical Research Reports. Publications Office of the European Union. http://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/handle/111111111/52393.
Petriglieri, Gianpiero; Ashford, Susan J. & Wrzesniewski, Amy. (2019). Agony and ecstasy in the gig economy: Cultivating holding environments for precarious and personalized work identities. Administrative Science Quarterly, 64(1), 124-170.
Polkowska, Dominika. (2020). Platform work during the COVID-19 pandemic: A case study of Glovo couriers in Poland. European Societies, 23(sup. 1), S321-S331. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616696.2020.1826554.
Prassl, Jeremias. (2018). Humans as a service: The promise and perils of work in the gig economy. Oxford University Press.
Rosenblat, Alex & Stark, Luke. (2016). Algorithmic labor and information asymmetries: A case study of Uber’s drivers. International Journal of Communication, 10, 3.758-3.784.
Rothschild, Viola. (7 September 2018). China’s gig economy is driving close to the edge. Foreign Policy. https://foreignpolicy.com/2018/09/07/chinas-gig-economy-is-driving-close-to-the-edge/.
Scholz, Trebor. (2017). Uberworked and underpaid: How workers are disrupting the digital economy. Polity Press.
Schwellnus, Cyrille; Geva, Assaf; Pak, Mathilde & Veiel, Rafael. (2019). Gig economy platforms: Boon or bane? Economics Department Working Papers, n.º 1550. OECD Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1787/fdb0570b-en.
Stanford, Jim. (2017). The resurgence of gig work: Historical and theoretical perspectives. The Economic and Labour Relations Review, 28(3), 382-401.
Statista. (2021). Current financial situation of gig workers worldwide due to the COVID-19 pandemic as of March 2020. https://www.statista.com/statistics/1128318/gig-workers-worldwide-current-financial-sitution-covid-19/.
T. Rowe Price. (2 April 2018). 2018 Financial Attitudes & Behaviors toward the Gig Economy. https://www.troweprice.com/corporate/us/en/press/t--rowe-price--gig-economy-workers-pay-more-attention-to-their-m.html.
Umar, Muhammad; Xu, Yan & Mirza, Sultan Sikandar. (2020). The impact of Covid-19 on gig economy. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja, 34(1). https://doi.org/10.1080/1331677X.2020.1862688.
Ungemah, Joe. (2021). Punching the clock: Adapting to the new future of work. Oxford University Press.
Urzi Brancati, Cesira; Pesole, Annarosa & Fernández-Macías, Enrique. (2019). Digital labour platforms in europe: Numbers, profiles, and employment status of platform workers. JCR Technical Reports. European Commission. https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/publication/digital-labour-platforms-europe-numbersprofiles-and-employment-status-platform-workers.
Vallas, Steven & Schor, Juliet B. (2020). What do platforms do? Understanding the gig economy. Annual Review of Sociology, 46, 273-294.
Van Buren, Harry J. & Greenwood, Michelle. (2008). Enhancing employee voice: Are voluntary employer-employee partnerships enough? Journal of Business Ethics, 81(1), 209-221.
Van Doorn, Niels. (2017). Platform labor: on the gendered and racialized exploitation of low-income service work in the “on-demand” economy. Information, Communication & Society, 20(6), 898-914.
Wallenstein, Judith; De Chalendar, Alice; Reeves, Martin & Bailey, Allison. (2019). The new freelancers: Tapping talent in the gig economy. BCG Henderson Institute. https://www.bcg.com/en-us/publications/2019/new-freelancers-tapping-talent-gig-economy.
Wood, Alex J.; Graham, Mark; Lehdonvirta, Vili & Hjorth, Isis. (2019). Good gig, bad gig: Autonomy and algorithmic control in the global gig economy. Work, Employment and Society, 33(1), 56-75.
Woodcock, Jamie. (2016). Working the phones: Control and resistance in call centres. Pluto Press.
Zwick, Austin. (2018). Welcome to the gig economy: Neoliberal industrial relations and the case of Uber. GeoJournal, 83(4), 679-691.